We all know that ordinary water contains a variety of soluble compounds, and the solubility of some substances changes significantly with the change of temperature. The solubility of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate among them increases with the increase of temperature. decline. When the temperature rises, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate originally dissolved in water precipitate out to form precipitates, which can be flocculent, powdery, or deposited on the surface of containers and pipes to form scale. The index used to measure the total amount of calcium and magnesium ions is hardness. Generally speaking, the hardness of water is mainly composed of calcium (Ca2
+), magnesium (Mg2+) ions, and its specific index is the value of similar ions converted to calcium carbonate for timing. The current standard unit is mmol/L (millimoles per liter).
The traditional unit is mgN/L (milligram equivalent per liter), German degree, American system (imperial system), etc. Currently, the commonly used hardness units in China are mg/L (milligram per liter), mmol/L (millimoles per liter), mgN/L (milligram equivalent per liter), etc. Liters), occasionally users use German degrees, and divide the German degrees by 2.8 to convert to the national standard value mmol/L (mmol per liter). If the American Grain/Gallon (grain per plus Lun), the unit needs to be converted many times, so I won’t go into details here. Water with more calcium and magnesium ions is called hard water, and water with less calcium and magnesium ions is called soft water. Hard water and soft water are just popular names, and there is no standard concept of quantity. In daily life, water with a hardness lower than 3mmol/L is generally called soft water, 3-6 is called ordinary water, and 6-6 is called ordinary water. 8 is called relatively hard water, and more than 10 is called high hard water.
(Completely different standards are adopted in the industry, and generally only the hardness<Water with a score of 1 is called soft water, and between 1-10 is often referred to as hard water in general.>10 water is also called high hardness water) Why soften it? Since the deposition of scale has a significant impact on people's life and production, both production water and domestic water have certain requirements for hardness indicators, especially boiler water. If it contains hardness salts, scale will be formed on the heating surface of the boiler, thereby reducing the thermal efficiency of the boiler, increasing fuel consumption, and even damaging parts and causing explosions due to local overheating of the metal wall. Therefore, water softening treatment should be carried out for low-pressure boilers; water softening and desalination treatment should be carried out for medium and high pressure boilers. The process of using a certain method to reduce the hardness of water is called "softening" (generally refers to the use of equipment), and the corresponding equipment is called "water softener" (or "water softener, softener", etc.).
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