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Principle and Efficiency of Ultraviolet Sterilization


Principle and Efficiency of Ultraviolet Sterilization Let us understand ultraviolet rays We all know that the cheapest and most convenient way of disinfection and sterilization is sunlight. In fact, we just use ultraviolet rays from the sun light source as a sterilization tool. Ultraviolet light has been widely used by people because it is not only convenient, cheap, pollution-free and has no residue, but its only disadvantage is that it can only be obtained under good weather conditions. In 1878, Downee and Blunt discovered the bactericidal ability of ultraviolet rays, but there was no way to produce ultraviolet rays at that time, so this discovery could not be applied.

In 1901, the line ooper and Hewitt invented the mercury arc ultraviolet lamp, but limited by the filament material, vacuum technology, quartz purity and other technologies at that time, the life of the mercury arc lamp was not long, and the efficiency of the UV-ray was also low, but the invention of the mercury arc lamp was for Human use of ultraviolet light to kill bacteria has opened the door. In 1940, the United States invented the mercury lamp before it changed. The low-pressure mercury lamp is characterized by stable operation and high ultraviolet efficiency (30-40% of the energy is converted into sterilization power consumption), coupled with quartz purification and improved vacuum technology, the life of the low-pressure mercury ultraviolet lamp can be as long as 10,000 hours (the original intensity 80%).

The invention of the low-pressure mercury lamp has greatly developed the application of ultraviolet rays. The application of UV disinfection equipment in the United States was slightly slower than that in Europe, and this situation changed in the 1970s. Prior to this, the United States mainly used chlorine for disinfection.

With the rapid urbanization and the construction of a large number of urban domestic sewage plants, a large amount of sewage is discharged into natural water bodies after chlorine disinfection and used as drinking water sources, resulting in serious chlorine pollution of the downstream water bodies of sewage plants. These pollutions include: ① Residual chlorine: In order to maintain the bactericidal effect, the sewage plant must maintain residual chlorine in the discharged water. If the residual chlorine is discharged into natural water bodies, it will kill microorganisms and algae in the water. Put the water body② Since the lowest level of the food chain was destroyed in 1801, microorganisms and algae died, which made the food for small fish, shrimp and other shellfish less and the quantity decreased, which in turn affected the quantity and balance of other aquatic products.

②Chlorine disinfection will also produce carcinogenic chlorine nitrogen compounds. During the process of killing microorganisms, chlorine will oxidize the organic matter in cancer-causing cells. The by-products include chlorine ammonia and chlorine-halogen compounds, among which THM (trihalgen methane) is a carcinogen. THM accumulates in aquatic products and remains in the body after human consumption, causing cancer. The working principle of ultraviolet sterilizer The principle of ultraviolet sterilization All known life forms on the earth use DNA and RNA as the basis for reproduction and survival.

Both DNA and RNA are composed of 4 chemical units A--Adenine adenine T--Thymine thymine line--line ytosine cytosine, oxyaminopyridine G--Guanine guanine (basic component of nucleic acid) Cell When multiplying, the long chains in the DNA are opened, and after opening, the long A units of each long chain will look for the T unit to join, and each long chain can copy the same chain as the other long chain just separated, and restore the original division The complete DNA before it becomes the basis of new cells. Ultraviolet light with a wavelength of 240-270nm can break down DNA's ability to produce proteins and replicate. After the DNA and RNA of bacteria and viruses are damaged, their ability to produce proteins and reproduce has been lost.

Because bacteria and viruses generally have a short life cycle, bacteria that cannot reproduce and viruses will die quickly. Advantages of ultraviolet disinfection technology The disinfection effect of ultraviolet disinfection technology on bacteria, viruses and other pathogenic bodies has been recognized all over the world. Ultraviolet disinfection technology has the following obvious advantages.

1. Ultraviolet disinfection technology has a sterilizing efficiency unmatched by other technologies. Ultraviolet technology has a sterilizing efficiency for several common bacteria and viruses. The sterilizing effect of ultraviolet rays on bacteria and viruses is generally within one second. For traditional UV, chlorine and ozone methods, it generally takes 20 minutes to an hour to achieve the effect of UV.

2. High-efficiency sterilization and broad-spectrum performance Ultraviolet technology has the highest sterilization broad-spectrum performance among all current disinfection technologies. It can kill almost all bacteria and viruses with high efficiency. And for some parasites that are extremely harmful to humans, chlorine and even ozone cannot or cannot be effectively killed (such as recessive cysts Kryptosporidium, Giardia, etc.) can be effectively killed.

Broad-spectrum sterilization of ultraviolet disinfection equipment. 3. No secondary pollution Since the ultraviolet technology can be controlled to only sterilize without adding any chemicals, it will not cause secondary pollution to the water body and the surrounding environment. Does not change any components in the water.

For chlorine disinfection, the organic chlorine produced by it and the organic matter in the water has been recognized as carcinogenic to the human body, and the chlorine compounds contained in the water will have a negative effect on some occasions, causing toxicity to aquatic organisms and the water environment. Ozone methods have similar problems. A large amount of unpleasant ozone that is not dissolved in water volatilizes into the air, which is harmful to the physical and mental health of nearby workers.

4. Safe and reliable operation Traditional disinfection techniques such as the use of chloride or ozone are highly toxic, flammable and explosive substances. The use of these substances poses a potential threat to the safety of the personnel at the operation site, the surrounding environment and residents, and requires special care. my country's public security, fire protection and environmental protection departments have strict regulations on the transportation, storage and operation of these high-risk substances.

These have greatly increased the psychological burden and sense of insecurity of the leaders, operators and surrounding residents of grassroots users. The modern ultraviolet disinfection system does not have such hidden dangers, and it is a relatively safe and reliable disinfection technology for the surrounding environment and operators. 5. Simple operation and maintenance, low cost Usually a high-efficiency technology is always associated with high cost and high operating cost.

However, UV technology is an exception. Due to the perfection of ultraviolet core technology in the 1990s, ultraviolet disinfection technology not only has the highest disinfection efficiency among all disinfection methods, but also has the simplest disinfection operation and maintenance, and the lowest operating cost. It can reach RMB 4 per ton of water at the level of 1,000 tons of treatment. Even lower, therefore, its performance-price ratio is the highest among all disinfection technologies. It not only has high efficiency unmatched by other disinfection technologies, but also has the advantages of low cost and operating expenses.

At the level of thousand tons of water treatment, its cost is only 1/2 of chlorine disinfection, 2/5 of chlorine plus dechlorination disinfection, and only 1/9 of ozone disinfection cost. Even at the processing capacity level of 100,000 tons, the investment and operating costs of ultraviolet disinfection equipment are far lower than other disinfection technologies. 6. Small footprint, no noise The ultraviolet disinfection equipment produced by our company.

For the NL line-2000 equipment that can process 80 tons of water per hour, it only occupies an area of ​​1.7 meters by 0.8 meters, is 1.5 meters high, and weighs 220 catties. If enough space is reserved, the system requires a total of 4 square meters of operating space. If the amount of treated water is reduced, the area occupied by the equipment will be reduced accordingly.

In addition, if the ultraviolet disinfection equipment relies on self-flowing water supply (no water pump), it will not produce any noise. 7. Continuous large-scale water disinfection Another feature of ultraviolet disinfection technology in the late 1990s is the continuous operation 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. In addition to regular maintenance within one or two hours, the best operating condition is 24-hour continuous operation.

Large water disinfection is another major feature of modern UV. In addition to disinfecting small water volumes (tens of liters per hour), large water volumes can also be disinfected. At present, the maximum practical application of ultraviolet technology has reached 60,000 tons per hour.

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